Vol. 2, Issue 3, Part B (2016)
Review on water resources and sources for safe drinking and improved sanitation in Ethiopia
Keredin Temam Siraj, PVV Prasada Rao
Fresh water resources and sources are depleting. Today, Most of developing countries are enforced to use unprotected and unsafe water sources and large number of death due to unsafe water. Thus, high pressure on countries’ development specially by increasing number of death and infected people then high socio-economic losses, instabilities, high population mobility’s, environmental insecurities and many others. Disparities, entire the globe in safe drinking water supply and improved sanitation is huge and it is achieved only by less than 2/3 of the world population and also poorly distributed entire the world. Among 2.6 billion people who do not get improved sanitation, majorities are found in Sub-Saharan Africans and south Asian countries. In most of the developing countries like Africa drought and politics are main causes for water shortage in which Ethiopia is one of such in horn of Africa where drought and politics are for millions of death. Reviewed literature shows that in Ethiopia access to safe drinking water and improved sanitation is one of the lowest in the world. In rural only ¼ of the population will get safe drinking water from protected sources and in urban residents areas ¾ can access. Ethiopia is sources of many major rivers amongst sub-Saharan African countries with the possible availabilities of on average 1575 M3 of available water resources per capital per year but almost all drinking water is from ground water. Because, this large volume of water is not available either whenever or/and wherever needed. Only 3% of water resources can be accessible. Good progress in sub-Saharan African countries including Ethiopia in providing safe drinking water and sanitation but still great gap. The impact due to lack of access to water are highly affecting communities in Ethiopia specially women. The major determinants in Ethiopia to provide better water access, sewerage and depletion of its source are financial problem, absence of WWTP, communication gap among RWB and RHB, water quality disparity and unstructured urban expansion. In addition, Ethiopia’s water supply systems are characterized by high system losses, fewer networks and low capacity and lack of timely maintenance, illegal connections are changing water quality after reservoirs and before uses. Therefore, more action is required and even too late. MoWE set a strong national policy and adapted Universal Access Plan. This paper tries to review literature about status of fresh water resources and sources, safe drinking water and improved sanitation in Ethiopia in addition to author’s field observation for further researches
How to cite this article:
Keredin Temam Siraj, PVV Prasada Rao. Review on water resources and sources for safe drinking and improved sanitation in Ethiopia. International Journal of Applied Research. 2016; 2(3): 78-82.