Metabolic syndrome is a clustering of at least three of the five following medical conditions: central obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, high serum triglycerides, and low serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL). There has been a consistent effort to evaluate biochemical markers to predict an early onset of metabolic syndrome and subsequently intervene appropriately by means of lifestyle changes and drug therapy and thereby reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Gamma Glutamyl Transferase (GGT) is one such marker which is cost effective, easily available and performed as part of liver function tests.
Aims and Objectives: (1) To assess the role of GGT as a marker in the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. (2) To assess the sensitivity and speciﬁcity of GGT in the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome.
Materials and Methods: This was hospital based cross sectional study was conducted on 200 subjects who attended the Medicine Outpatient and Inpatient services (OPD and IPD) at MBGH, Udaipur.
Results: In our study, total 200 subjects were recruited comprising 100 cases of metabolic syndrome and 100 age and sex matched control. A total 75 out of 100 cases satisfied the IDF criteria of FPG>100mg/dl. The mean HbA1c was 8.25±2.18 and elevated in 71 out of 100 cases. A total 55 out of 100 patients satisfied the IDF criteria of SBP>130mmHg. The values of TG, HDL and LDL cholesterol were highly significant among cases. Among cases, 80 out of 100 had GGT values above normal while only 2% of control had high GGT values. GGT values were compared with respective parameters of metabolic syndrome. Out of 55 patients with SBP > 130mmHg, 49 had GGT level above the reference range. Out of 80 patients with hypertriglyceridemia, 66 had GGT level above the reference range. Among 75 patients with FPG>100mg/dl, 60 had higher GGT. With respect to burden of cardiovascular disease, 25 out of 100 patients were suffering from CVD. In all these patients, higher levels of GGT were noted.
Conclusion: This study has critically evaluated the utility of GGT as a diagnostic marker of metabolic syndrome. Elevated levels were found to be associated with metabolic syndrome and is strong predictor of cardiovascular risk. Hence GGT has position in algorithms for evaluation of metabolic syndrome and CVD risk assessment. The primary prevention may be emphasized in patients of metabolic syndrome with high GGT values.