“Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage”. Perception of pain in pediatrics is complex, and entails physiological, psychological, behavioral, and developmental factors. However, in spite of its frequency, pain in infants, children, and adolescent is often underestimated and under treated. It has also been shown that infants and children, who experience pain in early life, show long-term changes in terms of pain perception and related behaviors. Health care professionals in this setting have a responsibility to reduce pain and anxiety as much as possible while maintaining patient safety.
Pain in infants and children can be difficult to assess which has led to the creation of numerous age-specific pain management tools and scores. Health care workers need to be able to detect the symptoms and signs of pain in different age groups and determine whether these symptoms are caused by pain or other factors. It is difficult for health care professionals to foresee which measurement systems apply to accurately measure pain in the pediatric population. Health care professionals often prefer practical methods, which reliably track the child’s pain experience and pain control over time whereas researchers tend to focus on tools, which are meticulously proven for reliability with different observers. Thus a balance may be hard to achieve. Barriers to pain management in children are numerous and include inaccuracies regarding pathophysiological mechanisms of pain with statements such as “children do not feel pain the way adults do”, fears regarding the use of pharmacological agents and deficits in knowledge of methods of pain assessment. These myths and other factors such as personal values and beliefs, prevent adequate identification and alleviation of pain for all children.
Methodology: Quasi experimental post only design was adopted to assess the effectiveness of cough trick method in reducing Immunization pain. The sample was 60 children and Non-probanility sampling technique was used to select the subjects. Facial expression pain scale was used to assess the level of pain.
Description of Demographic Data: Among 60 samples,
In experimental group (30 samples) with regard to age majority were12 (40%) belongs to 3-5 year. With regard to gender majority were male child 17(56.7%).With regard to development of age majority were 16(53.3%) belongs to term. With regard to Immunization all children were immunized 30(100%).With regard to previous experience majority were 21(70%) not have history of previous experience to pain.
In control group (30 samples) with regard to age majority of the children were 10(33.33%) belongs to age group of 3-5 years, With regard to gender
Majority were 18(60%), With regard to developmental age majority were 19(63.33%) belongs to term maturity of child, With regard to previous experience majority were 16(53.3%) belongs to no history of previous experience to pain.
With regard to level of pain
In experimental group 2 (6.7%) were experienced no pain, 18(60%) were experienced mild pain, 6(20%) were experienced Moderate pain, 4(13.3%) were experienced severe pain. In control group 1(3.3%) were experienced mild pain, 8(26.7%) were experienced moderate pain, 21(70%) were experienced severe pain.