: Lung cancer is a major health problem worldwide. The incidence is increasing globally at a rate of 0.5% per year. Unlike many other malignancies, whose causes are largely unknown, the cause of lung cancer is tobacco smoking in as many as 90% of patients. Although the relationship between cigarette smoking and squamous cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma has long been clear, the relationship between smoking and adenocarcinoma, large cell carcinoma has been more ambiguous.
Aim and Objectives: To assess the relationship of histological type of Bronchogenic Carcinoma to smoking.
Materials and Methods: This study is a prospective analysis of patients attending out patient, Department of Respiratory Medicine in Prathima Institute of Medical Sciences, Karimnagar conducted from January 2016 to June 2016. Patients who had histological or cytological confirmation of lung cancer determined through fiberoptic bronchoscopy, USG/ CT guided FNAC/biopsy will be selected. Informed oral consent obtained from all patients. Detailed history, clinical Examination, Basic Biochemical Investigations were done in all patients.
Results: In our study shows that out of 45 patients 41(91%) were male and 4(9%) were female. The male to female ratio is 14:1. Clubbing was present in 19 patients in the study. Out of 19 patients, 17 patients (89%) had squamous cell carcinoma and the remaining 2 had adenocarcinoma. Among 29 patients with squamous cell carcinoma 20 patients (69%) had centrally located tumor and 9 patients (31%) had peripheral tumor. Among 12 patients with adenocarcinoma, 9 patients (75%) had peripheral tumor and 3 patients (25%) had central tumor. Among 4 patients with small cell carcinoma 4 had centrally located tumor.
Conclusion: Cigarette smoking is strongly associated with bronchogenic carcinoma. Adeno carcinoma is associated with peripheral lesion while squamous and small cell carcinoma is associated with central lesion. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most frequent histological type followed by adenocarcinoma. The most common radiological pattern found is mass lesion with or without collapse followed by pleural effusion and obstructive pneumonia.