AbstractBack ground & aim:
The islets of Langershans is an important endocrine gland which regulate the blood glucose level. The rise in blood glucose level results in diabetes- mellitus, an age old disease which affects all the systems of our body, Nowadays an increase in the incidence of diabetes is noticed in younger age group also. The increased intake of alcohol in our state also affects the gland.
Materials & methods: Fifty five autopsied specimens of pancreas an age range from 10 weeks old fetus to 80 yrs old adult were collected for analysis from the department of pathology and mortuary of Government Medical College Trivandrum, Kerala. Histological examinations of the glands were done in the histology laboratory of department of Anatomy Government Medical College, Trivandrum, Kerala.
Results: According to the present study, both acini & islets were developed from the endodermal secretary tubules. Acini and islets were appeared by 12th weeks and beta cells by 14th weeks and beta cell granules by 32nd week in fetuses of non diabetic mothers. The beta cells appeared by 12th weeks and their granules by 28th weeks in fetuses of Diabetic mothers. Well defined islet groups appeared in full term fetuses of non diabetic mothers but well defined islets groups with staining characteristic similar to adult appeared by 36th weeks in fetuses of diabetic mothers.
Conclusion: In fetuses of non diabetic mothers, the islets and acini appeared by 12th week and beta cells by 14th week and their granules by 32nd week. But in fetuses of diabetic mothers the beta cells appeared by 12th weeks and their granules by 28th week. In non diabetic adults the number of beta cells decreased after the age of 40 yrs, but in diabetic on insulin treatment the size and number of beta cells increased. The beta cell destruction may be due to chemicals, diet, genetic factors and autoimmune diseases.