International Journal of Applied Research
Vol. 4, Issue 10, Part F (2018)
Prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis and its correlation with gestational age and parity in pregnant women at a tertiary care hospital in south India
Introduction: Candida species colonize the vagina in at least 20 % of all women, rising to 30 % in pregnancy and may lead to pregnancy related complications. Several studies have found a high prevalence of both symptomatic as well as asymptomatic vaginal candida infection only during pregnancy. Most episodes of symptomatic Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) occur during the second and third trimesters. The increased risk of VVC in pregnancy is likely sustained by pregnancy-related factors, such as immunologic alterations, increased estrogen levels, and increased vaginal glycogen production. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of VVC among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of a tertiary health institution in South India and to emphasize the need for accurate diagnosis and adequate treatment Materials and methods: This is a 4‑month cross‑sectional study performed at the Department of Medical Microbiology of the Apollo Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Chittoor. A total of 160 samples were collected from pregnant women at various periods of gestation by simple random sampling. A pair of high vaginal swabs was collected aseptically from the study subjects which was used for Gram’s staining and inoculation into Sabouraud’s dextrose agar (SDA). Infection with Candida species was diagnosed by Gram‑stained smear and colony growth on SDA and Germ tube test. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 21, Chi square test and Fisher’s exact test. Results and Discussion: The frequency of vaginal candidiasis during pregnancy was found to be 25.6%, in which 48.7% were symptomatic and 51.2% were asymptomatic group. 17% of the positive cases had gestational DM. Increased ratio of infection was observed in multigravida and diabetic women which is similar to previous studies. VVC showed a progressive increase with trimester of pregnancy. Candida albicans was the most prevalent species isolated. There were no significant differences in results with respect to age and trimester of pregnancy.Conclusion: An increased ratio of vaginal candidiasis in multigravida and in diabetic pregnant women requires these women to be routinely screened for vaginal candidiasis regardless of symptomatic status.
How to cite this article:
Pavani P, Dr. Lavanya V, Dr. Kailasanatha Reddy B. Prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis and its correlation with gestational age and parity in pregnant women at a tertiary care hospital in south India. Int J Appl Res 2018;4(10):428-431.