Introduction: Anemia is one of the most prevalent nutritional deficiency problems affecting pregnant women. Anemia in pregnancy is commonly considered as a risk factor for the poor pregnancy outcome and can result in complications that threaten the life of both mother and fetus. According to WHO, anemia in pregnancy is a condition in which the hemoglobin concentration in the peripheral blood is less than 11gm/100ml. Given the multifactorial nature of this disease, correcting anemia often requires an integrated approach. In order to effectively combat anemia, the contributing factors must be identified and addressed.
Aim and objectives: The study was aimed to estimate the prevalence of anemia among pregnant women and to identify the risk-factors of anemia among pregnant women.
Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted among 398 antenatal women attending antenatal clinic of MOSC Medical College Hospital, Kolenchery from 16/11/2018 to 10/12/2018. Convenience sampling technique was adopted or this study. Questionnaire on risk factors of anemia was used to collect the data. Medical record of all antenatal women who visits the antenatal OPD during the data collection period was reviewed to assess the hemoglobin value. The results were analyzed by using R software and p value <0.05 was considered as significant.
Results: The findings of the study revealed that from the total 398 antenatal women, the prevalence of anemia was 42.96%. Among them, about 18.09% were moderately anemic, 24.87% were mildly anemic and no severe anemia was found out. The multiple logistic regression results showed that antenatal bleeding, contraceptive use, iron supplements, irregular menstrual cycle, history of heavy menstruation, loss of appetite, hemorrhoids and bleeding gums were the risk factors of anemia in pregnancy.
Conclusion: This study is one of the few studies in Kerala that has focused on exploring and identifying the risk factors of anemia among pregnant women. It is suggested that early detection of risk factors of anemia will help for the effective management of anemia in pregnancy.