International Journal of Applied Research
Vol. 1, Issue 11, Part E (2015)
Santal and their agricultural practices: Continuity and change
Agriculture in India has a significant history. Today, India ranks second worldwide in agricultural output. Agriculture is the backbone of Indian economy, is also a source of livelihood forever seventy percent of population of our country. Agriculture is the primary source of income for the majority of the tribal people of India and it is also the heart of Indian economy. With the process of agricultural change due to modernization and new agricultural technology has been introduced at the grass root level. The agricultural modernization and development introduced in 1960s brought significant changes in various aspects of life throughout the country and also affected indigenous and tribal people. Agricultural modernization has since long been introduced in the tribal areas of Odisha, primarily with a view to raise the level of income, standard of living and life style of the Santal people of Odisha. In agrarian sector, the Santals are mainly marginal, small farmers and cultivate for their own consumption without hankering after profit. This paper meant for elucidating the impact as well as adaptation of modernization on the Santal agriculture. The author studied empirically the extent and nature of adaptation of modern agricultural technology by the Santals and subsequently its impact on the life style of the people in the locality. The obstacles or social-cultural constraints of the Santals towards the adaption of the modern agricultural technology and agricultural mechanization have also taken into considerations. The Social, cultural and economic problems of the Santals have also been studied in connection with the agricultural modernization. The paper based on intensive fieldwork and case study from Santals of Mayurbhanj district of Odisha and attempt to explore the livelihood strategies of the Santals, and to examine the changes that took place in the traditional agricultural practices of the tribes. The paper also tries to analyze the impact of changing livelihood strategies on the socio-cultural life in general as well as religious and economic aspects in particular of Santals. The paper argues how the introduction of agricultural changes and modernization have impacted on the Santal people’s village occupational structure, family, marriage, Kinship, indigenous knowledge, and land distribution pattern.
How to cite this article:
Biswajit Parida. Santal and their agricultural practices: Continuity and change. Int J Appl Res 2015;1(11):331-335.