Anaemia is the term that indicates a low red cell count and a below normal haemoglobin or haematocrit level. A reduction in the concentration of haemoglobin in the blood stream to a level below 11gm/dl for pregnant women. Among different types of anaemia iron deficiency anemia is the most common nutritional disorder (66-80%), in the world as per WHO (2002). Problem statement a study to identify the factors associated with anaemia among rural and urban antenatal women. Conceptual frame work was adopted from modified Rosenstock and Beckers (1974) Health Belief Model.
Material and Methodology: The research approach used was the quantitative descriptive survey approach and the design was exploration survey design. In the present study the variable are age, gestational age, parity, socioeconomic status and body mass index (BMI). The target population of the study was antenatal woman from urban and rural area. The non-probability convenient sampling technique was used to obtain an adequate size of sample. The sample was selected according to the criteria laid down by the investigator. The data collection tool consisted of two sections. Section I: Demographic profile of 5 items which includes the information of antenatal woman, like: age, marital status, education, socioeconomic status and occupation. Section II: Section II consists of obstetric profile which includes 19 items. The content validity was obtained by consulting the experts from the medical as well as nursing field. Almost all the questionnaire was approved by the experts. The tool was pretested on 30 antenatal women. The reliability was not tested as it is a survey method.
Result: The factors associated with anaemia in urban and rural antenatal women Kruskal Wallis test was used. The p value of all demographic and obstetric variables is greater than 0.005 except for history of miscarriage, where the p value is 0.002. So it can be concluded that there is association of level of haemoglobin and history of miscarriage at 5% level of significance.
Conclusion: The prevalence of anaemia differs in different epidemiological and socio-economical settings. In some settings malaria is an important cause while in others intestinal worms plays an important role as the causative factor which results into blood loss and malnutrition. Chronic illnesses and socioeconomic status have an important role to the development of anaemia by increasing problems of affordability of food and accessibility of preventive and curative measures. Hence, the researcher was curious to assess the prevalence of anaemia in antenatal women and related background variables, in different epidemiological and socio-economical settings that is from urban and rural population.